Database management is the method to manage information that is essential to an organization’s business operations. It includes data storage and distribution to applications and users and modifying it as needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming corrupted due to unexpected failures. It is an integral part of the entire informational infrastructure of a company that assists in decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.
A database is a collection of tables that store data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and allow cross-references among tables. Each table contains a number of fields, called attributes, that provide information about the data entities. The most popular type of database currently is a relational model, developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to update many sections of the database.
Most DBMSs support different types of databases by offering different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level deals with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of various external views (based on the various data models) and may also include virtual tables that are computed from generic data to improve performance.